1918 19th Century On the Land Electricity Iron Sands to Steel Think Big

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Other Resources


19th Century Heritage

Steam Railways
Railways in Economic History
Vogel’s Plan
Vogel and Think Big
A Special Breed of New Zealand Locomotives
New Zealand Locomotives
A Colonial Viewpoint
Gold Dredges
Railway Glamour
New Zealand Manufacture
The Pacific Configuration
A Classic Steam Locomotive
A Limit to Locomotive Design

Meat Industry
An Opportune Technology
The "Dunedin"
A Direct Steam Service
British Technology
A 19thCentury Industry
Introduction of the Chain
Lowly Graduates
Government Support
Colonial Dependence
Systematic Research at Last
Electrical Stimulation
Hygiene Regulations
Mechanical Dressing
Parallel Projects
Sidney Jenkinson

On the Land


Aerial Fertilizer
Dairy Industry 1
Dairy Industry 2
Dairy Industry 3
Dairy Innovation Table
Electric Fencing
Wool Scouring 1
Wool Scouring 2
What is Wool Scouring
A Learning Process
The Origins of the New Technology
Features of the System
Commercial Acceptance & Industry-wide Diffusion
The Risk Takers
Economic Considerations


The Wonders of
Cheap Hydro
 Water Wheels
White Diamonds
A New World in Canterbury
Rural Electicity
Electric Cars
Women’s Labour
Scale Economies
Electric Milking Machines
A Fascinating Prospect
All-electric Houses
New Power Sources

Plumbing of Steam
Main Line
The Most Important Rail Link
A Visionary General Manager
A Tentative Contract
A Royal Commission Provides a Forum
Aicken’s Report
An Idealistic Solution
Aiken though Retired Gives Evidence
Lusty has the Last Word
Heroes & Villains
Go Ahead in 1980
Advantages and Disadvantages
Curve Easement
Earlier Electric Schemes
Cook Strait Cable
Evan Parry

Iron Sands to Steel

Iron Sands 1

Iron Sands 2
Iron Sands 3
Iron Sands 4
Iron Sands reference
Iron Sands Chronology
John Cull
Leo Fanning
Process Options

Think Big

The Path to Think Big

A Plea for Forestry Research
A Belief in Technology
Faith In Technology
High Living Standards
Dr Sutch’s Vision
A Colonial Economy
The Cotton Mill
Steel & Aluminium
Environmental Stirrings
Central Govt Regulation
Think Big Intro
A Path to Think Big I
A Path to Think Big II
A Path to Think Big III
The Ammonia/Urea Plant
A Path to Think Big IV
The Big Decisions

Photo Credits:

Ab Locomotive courtesy NZ Railway & Locomotive Society Archives;

Photographs of Richard Cooper, Nigel Evans & Peter Bates courtesy of Dr Nigel Evans

Onekaka picture courtesy of Christine Whiteford.

Solo and Chain Butchering pictures from " A History of the Canterbury Frozen Meat Company Limited – the first seventy-five years" by G.R MCDonald, 1957.

Top Dressing Plane, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Eric Lee-Johnson Collection E1527/03

Cockayne, Leonard. 1928
Photographer: Stanley Polkinghorne Andrew 1879?- 1964
Description: Dr Leonard Cockayne (1855-1934).
Teacher, horticulturist, botanist. Born Sheffield, 7 April 1855, attended Wesley College, Sheffield, in 1872, and then Owens College, Manchester, until 1874. Travelled to Australia in 1877, then to New Zealand in 1880. Was President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury in 1899 and 1912, the New Zealand Institute in 1918-1919, and of its Science Congress in 1919, the New Zealand Institute of Horticulture in 1924-1925, and the New Zealand Native Bird Protection Society in 1930-1931. Was responsible in 1927 for the establishment of the Otari Open Air Native Plant Museum, at Wilton in Wellington. Dr Cockayne died in Wellington on 8 July 1934.
Date; 1928
Earle Andrew Collection Alexander Tumbull Library, Wellington, N.Z.
Reference Number: F- 18377-1/1 –
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Geiringer, Erich
Photographer unknown
Description: Dr Erich Geiringer (1917-1995)
Wellington physician, writer, publisher, broadcaster and challenger of the status quo. He was born in Vienna, 31 January 1917, and escaped from Nazi Germany in March 1938, going first to Belgium and then England. He attended medical school in Edinburgh and Glasgow and was a Fulbright scholar. He died in Wellington 24 August 1995.
Date 1974
Reference Number. F- 21989-35MM Print from the Alexander Tumbull Library, Wellington,
Reproduced by courtesy of lllustrations Editor, The Evening Post, Wellington

Semple, Robert
Photographer unknown
Description: Coalminer, trade unionist, politician (Labour Member
of Parliament 1918-1949; Minister of Public Works and Transport 1935-1940)
Date: c1920s
Alexander Tumbull Library, Wellington, N.Z. Reference Number. C- 24418-1/2.:
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Semple, Robert.
Photographer Unknown
Description: Robert Semple, then Minister of Public Works, on a Caterpillar Diesel bulldozer.
Date: 29 March 2023
Evening Post Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, Reference Number. F- 115893-1/2 –
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Fanning, Leo
Photographer unknown
Description: Leo Fanning (left) 1936 with Minister in Charge of Tourist and Health Resorts (Dean Jack Eyre 1914- ) (right) and members of the Wellington Travel League, Mr J.L. Squire (centre) and Mr C. Rouse.
Date: 1957
Alexander Tumbull Library Wellington, N.Z
Reference Number: C- 24419-1/2
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Smith, Edward Metcalf.
Photographer unknown
Description: Edward Metcalfe Smith 1839-1907. Armourer,
Ironsands entrepreneur, politician. MP for New Plymouth (1890-1896) and Taranaki, (1899-1907). House of Representatives, (1906-1908).
Date: c1900s
Alexander Tumbull Library, Welllngton,
Reference Number. F- 183-35MM -B.:
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Sutch, William Ball.
Photographer unknown
Description: William Ball Sutch (1907-1975). Economic and industrial development consultant.
Date: c1947
Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, N.Z.
Reference Number: F- 92659-1/2 – Collection Reference No.: PAColl-6001-28
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed

Vogel, Sir Julius.
Photographer. Morris
Description: Julius Vogel, 1835-1899. He arrived in Dunedin in 1861 and held a number of political positions before becoming premier in 1873. He was largely responsible for the immigration and public works policies of the 1870s. Vogel was knighted in 1875. In 1888 he and his wife Mary retumed to England to live. In his retirement he wrote a furturistic novel "Anno domini 2000; or a woman’s destiny" (published 1889).
Date: c1870s
Alexander Tumbull Library, Welllngton
Reference Number. F- 5288-1/2
Permission of the Library is required before this photograph may be reproduced or displayed